English writer, Kipling was born in 1865, in Bombain, India, when the British Empire was on your peak, under Queen Victoria command (1837-1901) and India was part of British Crown. The imperialism and colonization changes from America, already divided between Portugal and Spain, and changes to Asia. The England, the most powerful country in Europe in the XIX century, adopted a liberal economic politic in the colonies, with no fighting against natives. The India, to Kipling, was an exotic country, with the lush nature, jungles, religion, colors, smells and habits very different of England.

§ At age of 6 years old, Kipling was sent to England to study in a severe private college. There, he had contact with the Literature and, after studies and military service, returning to India like a journalist. Wrote many poems and short stories exalting the British Empire and, at the age of 23 years old, was famous, best knowed as the artistic voice of colonialism. Prolific and knowed like “the industry of a only man”, he wrote a biggest work in a few years. Your wife, the american Caroline Starr Balestier, controlled all the acts of Rudy and your production. The writer, so, putted all bravery and gory in poems and short stories in honor to the Britain Empire and his soldiers.

§ Travels to China, Japan and United States. Knows Mark Twain and, returning to London, discovered famous and admired by men like Robert Louis Stevenson and Henry James. So, goes to Vermont, United States, where wrote the Book of Jungle 1 and 2, followed by Kim, your two most famous books.

§ Follows another books with moralist stories, but full of action and vivid scenery, like Seven Seas and Captains Courageous. In 1907, won the Nobel of Literature.

§ In 1927, knew the Brazil and highlighted, beyond the beauty of Rio de Janeiro, the jogo do bicho, (fascinating, and illegal), the corruption and the sentence “God is brazilian”. Received critics because your conservatory position.

§ Died in1936, in London. After his death, the American writer T.S. Elliot revised your complete work and fins his great talent to tell stories. So, your reputation changes and he was recognized like a great writer and storyteller.


MAIN WORKS

§ BOOK OF JUNGLE – Here, Kipling created Mowgly, the boy created by wolfs. later adapted to the cinema by Disney. This book is adopted like a guide for a Scout Movement, approved by the Kipling after the request of Robert Baden-Powell, the beginner of scouts. Follows two interesting parts of Jungle of Book:

“After returns to civilization[…], Mowgli feels that children worried a lot. But the jungle law taught he keep the control, because, in the jungle, the life and the food depended of to keep control.”. pg.68

“To guard the cattle is a lazier thing of the world. The cattle eat the grass and lay down, and wake up, and walks, and eat the grass in a lazy way. So, the little boys, the guards, lay it down and stay lay down, looking for a beauty sun and a blue sky. He slepts, and wakes up, and slepts again, and make little toys with lost pieces of wood, or stay quiet looking for a lizard, above a stone, warming under the sun. After, they sing a long song, with the relaxing Indians modulations at the end, and the day seems more long that the entire life of a lot of people.”

§ KIM – Presents the contrast the western and eastern culture. Is the history of a boy that, without parents, travels around the India in company of a lama, looking for spring of miraculous water. A real portrait of Indian life through the boy’s eyes.


To see Kipling just as the main voice of English imperialism is very shallow. He worried about the future of British Empire, sustaining that the institutions must defend an ethic and moral position.

To Kipling, the human’s action recovers your mean in the social dimension. For this cause, interests much to him the military communities, schools and even the convivence represented in your Literature by the jungle’s animals. The Book of Jungle show us that even the jungle has a law and, although a cruel law, is better have one that none.

Conserves, under the fibula and poems structure, an ideological point of view centered in the problem of relations between the people and the society and the main paper of a moral law above the instincts existentialists. Defends until the end the gory of Britain Empire, like in one of his last poems:

No easy hope or lies

Shall bring us to our goal,

But iron sacrifice

Of body, will and soul.

There is but one task for all –

One life for each to give.

What stands if freedom fall?

Who dies if England live?

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WORK’S LIST:

Departmental Ditties (1886)

Plain Tales from the Hills (1888)

Soldiers Three (1888)

Barrack Room Ballads (1892)

Jungle Book(1894)

The second Jungle Book (1895

The Seven Seas (1896)

Captains Courageous (1897)

The Day’s Work (1898)

Stalky and Co. (1899))

Kim (1901)

Just So Stories (1902)

Trafficks and Discoveries (1904)

Puck of Pook’s Hill (1906)

Actions and Reactions (1909)

Debits and Credits (1926)

Thy Servant a Dog (1930)

Limits and Renewals (1932)


One of most knowed poems of Kipling is IF. In it, a father give advices for your young son.

IF
If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
But make allowance for their doubting too,
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated, don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise:

If you can dream–and not make dreams your master,
If you can think–and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build ‘em up with worn-out tools:

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it all on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breath a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: "Hold on!"

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings–nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;
If all men count with you, but none too much,
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And–which is more–you’ll be a Man, my son!

–Rudyard Kipling

SE

Se és capaz de manter tua calma, quando,
todo mundo ao redor já a perdeu e te culpa.
De crer em ti quando estão todos duvidando,
e para esses no entanto achar uma desculpa.

Se és capaz de esperar sem te desesperares,
ou, enganado, não mentir ao mentiroso,
Ou, sendo odiado, sempre ao ódio te esquivares,
e não parecer bom demais, nem pretensioso.

Se és capaz de pensar – sem que a isso só te atires,
de sonhar – sem fazer dos sonhos teus senhores.
Se, encontrando a Desgraça e o Triunfo, conseguires,
tratar da mesma forma a esses dois impostores.

Se és capaz de sofrer a dor de ver mudadas,
em armadilhas as verdades que disseste
E as coisas, por que deste a vida estraçalhadas,
e refazê-las com o bem pouco que te reste.

Se és capaz de arriscar numa única parada,
tudo quanto ganhaste em toda a tua vida.
E perder e, ao perder, sem nunca dizer nada,
resignado, tornar ao ponto de partida.

De forçar coração, nervos, músculos, tudo,
a dar seja o que for que neles ainda existe.
E a persistir assim quando, exausto, contudo,
resta a vontade em ti, que ainda te ordena: Persiste!

Se és capaz de, entre a plebe, não te corromperes,
e, entre Reis, não perder a naturalidade.
E de amigos, quer bons, quer maus, te defenderes,
se a todos podes ser de alguma utilidade.

Se és capaz de dar, segundo por segundo,
ao minuto fatal todo valor e brilho.
Tua é a Terra com tudo o que existe no mundo,
e – o que ainda é muito mais – serás um Homem, meu filho!

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Download free Kipling’s book in my Sky Drive, in the ENGLISH FOLDER, KIPLING subfolder (at left of page)

Sources

http://www.junglebook-collections.nl/

http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/23967

http://www.arsregia.com/rkipling.html

http://www.clubedapoesia.com.br/mestres

Thanks for your visit. If you want, let a scrap to me.

Claudio